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Diersoorten en referenties

Dolfijn

U/L

Fret

U/L

Geit

<52

U/L

Hond

<117

U/L

Kat

<109

U/L

Konijn

<70

U/L

Reptiel

U/L

Rund

5 - 18

U/L

Schaap

<44

U/L

Varken

19 - 76

U/L

Vogel

U/L

Zeehond

U/L

Kenmerken

Afkorting

ALT

Rubriek

Lever-galwegen

LOINC

Methode

UV without P5P

Doorlooptijd

dezelfde dag

Staalname

*

Serum

 

EDTA plasma

 

Li-Heparine plasma

* = voorkeur


Synoniemen

  • ALAT, alanine aminotransferase
  • GPT, glutamaat-pyruvaat transaminase
  • EC 2.6.1.2

Fysiologie

Alanine aminotransferase katalyseert de transfer van de alfa-amino groep van alanine naar oxoglutaraat met productie van pyruvaat en glutamaat. ALT bevindt zich in hoofdzaak in het cytoplasma (en slechts in kleine hoeveelheden in de mitochondriën). Net als AST heeft het cofactor P5P nodig voor een maximale enzyme-activiteit.

Orgaanspecificiteit

  • ALT is aanwezig in leverweefsel, spierweefsel (hart- en skeletspier), nieren en rode bloedcellen.
  • Het is vrij specifiek voor de lever bij hond, kat, fret, en primaten; in mindere mate bij konijn en rat,
  • Het leverweefsel van herbivoren en varkens vertoont slechts een lage enzyme-activiteit.
  • ALT is weinig specifiek voor de lever bij vogels en reptielen.

Gevoeligheid

  • Hoog voor inflammatie, necrose, lipidose en primaire neoplasie van de lever.
  • Minder voor stuwing, metastasaire neoplasie en portosystemische shunts.

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Referenties

1. Valentine B, Blue J, Shelley S, Cooper B. Increased serum alanine aminotransferase activity associated with muscle necrosis in the dog. J Vet Intern Med. 1990;4(3):140-143. [PubMed]
2. Swenson C, Graves T. Absence of liver specificity for canine alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Vet Clin Pathol. 1997;26(1):26-28. [PubMed]
3. Sorensen K, Venn-Watson S, Ridgway S. Trace and non-trace elements in blood cells of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): variations with values from liver function indicators. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44(2):304-317. [PubMed]
4. Venn-Watson S, Smith C, Jensen E. Assessment of increased serum aminotransferases in a managed Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) population. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44(2):318-330. [PubMed]
5. Fauquier D, Mazet J, Gulland F, Spraker T, Christopher M. Distribution of tissue enzymes in three species of pinnipeds. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2008;39(1):1-5. [PubMed]
6. Jerry Kaneko J, W. Harvey J, L. Bruss M. Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. Academic Press; 2008.
7. Quesenberry K, W. Carpenter J. Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents - E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2011.
8. Montalvo V, Cruz M, Ahmad I, et al. Hepatitis E virus in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2017;123(1):13-18. [PubMed]

Recent op pubmed

Hond

  1. Myburgh, EC, Goddard, A. The effect of pyridoxal-5-phosphate on serum alanine aminotransferase activity in dogs suffering from canine babesiosis. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2009;76 (3):327-33. doi: 10.4102/ojvr.v76i3.38. PubMed PMID:21105601 .
  2. Viana Nunes, AM, das Chagas Pereira de Andrade, F, Filgueiras, LA, de Carvalho Maia, OA, Cunha, RLOR, Rodezno, SVA et al.. preADMET analysis and clinical aspects of dogs treated with the Organotellurium compound RF07: A possible control for canine visceral leishmaniasis?. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2020;80 :103470. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2020.103470. PubMed PMID:32814174 .
  3. El-Sebaey, AM, Abramov, PN. Hepatocyte-derived canine familiaris-microRNAs as serum biomarkers of hepatic steatosis or fibrosis as implicated in the pathogenesis of canine cholecystolithiasis. Vet Clin Pathol. 2022;50 Suppl 1 :37-46. doi: 10.1111/vcp.12942. PubMed PMID:34031917 .
  4. Bajwa, J, Charach, M, Duclos, D. Adverse effects of rifampicin in dogs and serum alanine aminotransferase monitoring recommendations based on a retrospective study of 344 dogs. Vet Dermatol. 2013;24 (6):570-5, e135-6. doi: 10.1111/vde.12083. PubMed PMID:24164464 .
  5. Al-Jumaa, ZM, Ajaj, EA, Dahl, MO. Seroprevalence of canine hepatitis in stray dogs in Nineveh Province, Iraq. Vet World. 2020;13 (11):2326-2329. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.2326-2329. PubMed PMID:33363322 PubMed Central PMC7750242.
  6. Menard, M, Lecoindre, A, Cadoré, JL, Chevallier, M, Pagnon, A, Hernandez, J et al.. Use of serum biomarkers in staging of canine hepatic fibrosis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2019;31 (5):665-673. doi: 10.1177/1040638719866881. PubMed PMID:31347473 PubMed Central PMC6727106.
  7. de Castro Ferreira Lima, M, Bornhousen Cardoso de Araújo, J, Paes, AC, Gianfrancesco Filippi, M, Cruz-Aleixo, AS, Kiomi Takahira, R et al.. Conventional and Holter Electrocardiographic Assessment of Dogs Infected Naturally With Acute Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis. Top Companion Anim Med. 2019;35 :31-37. doi: 10.1053/j.tcam.2019.03.005. PubMed PMID:31122685 .
  8. Miyazaki, M, Rosenblum, JS, Kasahara, Y, Nakagawa, I, Patricelli, MP. Determination of enzymatic source of alanine aminotransferase activity in serum from dogs with liver injury. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. ;60 (3):307-15. doi: 10.1016/j.vascn.2009.09.001. PubMed PMID:19748590 .
  9. Bennaim, M, Centola, S, Ramsey, I, Seth, M. Clinical and Clinicopathological Features in Dogs with Uncomplicated Spontaneous Hyperadrenocorticism Diagnosed in Primary Care Practice (2013-2014). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. ;55 (4):178-186. doi: 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6789. PubMed PMID:31099602 .
  10. Gójska-Zygner, O, Karabowicz, J, Bartosik, J, Zygner, W. Association between Increased the De Ritis Quotient and Renal Azotaemia in Canine Babesiosis. Animals (Basel). 2022;12 (5):. doi: 10.3390/ani12050626. PubMed PMID:35268195 PubMed Central PMC8909065.
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Kat

  1. Armstrong, SK, Oosthuyzen, W, Gow, AG, Salavati Schmitz, S, Dear, JW, Mellanby, RJ et al.. Investigation of a relationship between serum concentrations of microRNA-122 and alanine aminotransferase activity in hospitalised cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2022; :1098612X221100071. doi: 10.1177/1098612X221100071. PubMed PMID:35703473 .
  2. Hermans, M, Charalambous, M, Pakozdy, A, Eisl-Glantschnigg, U, Neßler, J, Van Meervenne, SA et al.. Evaluation of the effect of phenobarbital administration on the biochemistry profile, with a focus on serum liver values, in epileptic cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2022;24 (6):530-538. doi: 10.1177/1098612X211037431. PubMed PMID:34387120 .
  3. Takano, T, Katoh, Y, Doki, T, Hohdatsu, T. Effect of chloroquine on feline infectious peritonitis virus infection in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Res. 2013;99 (2):100-7. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.04.016. PubMed PMID:23648708 PubMed Central PMC7114111.
  4. Ramos, DG, Santos, AR, Freitas, LD, Braga, ÍA, Silva, EP, Soares, LM et al.. Feline platynosomiasis: analysis of the association of infection levels with pathological and biochemical findings. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. ;26 (1):54-59. doi: 10.1590/S1984-29612017009. PubMed PMID:28327881 .
  5. Mazaki-Tovi, M, Abood, SK, Segev, G, Schenck, PA. Alterations in adipokines in feline hepatic lipidosis. J Vet Intern Med. ;27 (2):242-9. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12055. PubMed PMID:23480841 .
  6. Nájera, F, Hearn, AJ, Ross, J, Nathan, S, Revuelta, L. Alterations in selected serum biochemistry values of free-ranging Bornean leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis borneoensis) captured by box traps. Vet Res Commun. 2014;38 (3):265-9. doi: 10.1007/s11259-014-9605-2. PubMed PMID:24839119 .
  7. Merrick, CH, Pierro, J, Schleis, SE, Sones, EA, Wright, ZM, Regan, RC et al.. Retrospective evaluation of toceranib phosphate (Palladia®) toxicity in cats. Vet Comp Oncol. 2017;15 (3):710-717. doi: 10.1111/vco.12211. PubMed PMID:27041701 .
  8. Park, DS, Lee, J, Song, KH, Seo, KW. Treatment of acute erythroleukaemia with high-dose cytarabine in a cat with feline leukaemia virus infection. Vet Med Sci. 2022;8 (1):9-13. doi: 10.1002/vms3.646. PubMed PMID:34599794 PubMed Central PMC8788972.
  9. Sunpongsri, S, Kovitvadhi, A, Rattanasrisomporn, J, Trisaksri, V, Jensirisak, N, Jaroensong, T et al.. Effectiveness and Adverse Events of Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, and Prednisolone Chemotherapy in Feline Mediastinal Lymphoma Naturally Infected with Feline Leukemia Virus. Animals (Basel). 2022;12 (7):. doi: 10.3390/ani12070900. PubMed PMID:35405890 PubMed Central PMC8997098.
  10. Vester, BM, Burke, SL, Liu, KJ, Dikeman, CL, Simmons, LG, Swanson, KS et al.. Influence of feeding raw or extruded feline diets on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism of African wildcats (Felis lybica). Zoo Biol. ;29 (6):676-86. doi: 10.1002/zoo.20305. PubMed PMID:20095004 .
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